World war : Ottoman Empire Ottoman History Ottoman Sultans Austria Turkey

World War

World War I (1914-1918)

The war started in Europe on July 28,1914 and widened to various countries and colonies, therefore received the name the first “World War”.

The World War I was between Central Powers of Europe (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottomans) and the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, the United States of America, Italy, Serbia, Belgium, Australia, New Zeland ).

The main reasons were;

The killing of the Austria-Hungary Kingdom’s heir, Ferdinand, by a Serbian nationalist namely Gavrilo Princip.

The Eastern question

The economical and political competition between European countries (e.g. Germany /Britain)

The Stirrings of nationalism

Colonialism in search of raw material and market

The arms race

The Ottomans sided with Germany by signing a confidential agreement on August 2,1914

The Ottoman forces showed a successful defence at Canakkale War and did not let the enemy sail through the Straits. But the success did not affect enough the outcome of the war.


As the son of Abdulmecid and brother of Murat V, Abdulhamit II and Mehmet V Resat, Mehmet VI Vahdettin was enthroned on July 3, 1918 at the age of 57 “unexpectedly”, also as expressed by himself.

On one hand Mehmet VI had to deal with the disastrous World War I consequences and strived to end the war with a minimum loss. On the other hand the regime of “Ittihat ve Terakki” ”(Union and Progress) had to be controlled and therefore, he designated Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a well-known opponent to the “Ittihat and Terakki” as the Commander of Syria Front.

When it was well understood that the war might be ended against the Ottomans the Cabinet of “Ittihat ve Terakki” under the presidency of Talat Pasha was resigned on October 8, 1918. After the governance of The Cabinet of Izzet Pasha for a very short time, Mehmet VI designated Tevfik Pasha on November 13 as the Grand-vizier, which was not welcomed by Mustafa Kemal, and therefore ending their corporation.

The passive administration of the new cabinet was forced Mehmet VI to assign Damat Ferit Pasha,his sister’s husband, in order to assemble the government as a solution (March 4 1919).

Unfortunately the insensitive character of Damat Ferit Pasha worsened the conditions.

The Cabinet of Damat Ferit Pasha quarrelled with Mustafa Kemal Pasha after June 1919 and became ineffective with Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s “Sivas Congress” on September 1919.

The cabinet obtained a fetwa for the death sentence of Mustafa Kemal and his supporters on April 11 1920 and constrained to resign on July 1920.

The cabinet of the old Tevfik Pasha existed until November 1922 as neutral and ineffective.

With the end of War Of Independence on September 9,1922, the army of Turkey’s National Assembly under the command of Refet (Bele) Pasha, entered Istanbul with his units. The growing demonstrations violently against sultanate feared Mehmet VI.

The last sultan of the Ottomans was announced as traitor to the motherland and dethroned by the Grand National Assembly with a two-article law on November 1, 1922. Mehmet VI then took refuge in British battleship “Malaya” with his little son “Ertugrul Efendi” and harem members in the morning of November 17,1922. He was not accepted by Britain and had to stay in Malta for a short time. He went to pilgrimage at the end of 1922 with the invitation of the king of Hejaz. Having stayed until April 20, 1923 he was forced to leave under the pressure from Britain. After a short shell in Genoa, he moved to San Remo and stayed at a villa rented by an Egyptian Prince as aid. Mehmet VI Vahdettin died in San Remo on May 16, 1926 from a heart-attack.

His remains were taken by his son-in-law, Omer Faruk Efendi to Beirut and then to Damascus where he was buried at the Suleymaniye (Selimiye) Mosque in an official ceremony of the Syrian government.

See Also...
Abdulhamit 2
Abdulmecid I
Ahmet I
Ankara Battle
Balkan War
British Settlement In Egypt
Bulgaria Kingdom
Caldiran War
Conquest Of Edirne
Conquest Of Istanbul
Egypt Rebellion
Ertugrul Gazi
Fatih Sultan Mehmet
Foundation Of The Kingdom Of Bulgaria
Kabakci Mustafa Event
Kanuni Sultan Suleyman
Kingdom Of Bulgaria
Kosova Battle
Kosovo Battle I
London Convention
Mahmut 2
Mehmet 6 Vahdettin
Mehmet Sultan
Mehmet V Resat
Mercidabik War
Murat 1
Murat 2
Murat Sultan
Murat V
Mustafa I
Mustafa Iv
Nigbolu Battle
Orhan Bey
Osman Bey
Ottoman Austria
Ottoman Crete
Ottoman Crimean War
Ottoman Egypt Rebellion
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire Decline
Ottoman Empire History
Ottoman Empire Military
Ottoman Empire Russia War
Ottoman Empire Sultan
Ottoman Empire Timeline
Ottoman Empire Timeline Murat 1
Ottoman Empire Wars
Ottoman Habsburg Wars
Ottoman Iran Wars
Ottoman Persia Wars
Ottoman Persian Wars
Ottoman Poland
Ottoman Russia Relations
Ottoman Russian War
Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan And Ottoman Wars
Ottoman Sultan Nayezid
Ottoman Sultan Osman
Ottoman Sultans
Ottoman Tunisia Occupation
Ottoman Venice
Ottoman Victory
Ottoman War
Ottoman Wars
Ottomans And Osman Bey
Ottomans Mehmet
Ridaniye War
Second Siege Of Vienna
Seizure Of Egypt
Sirpsindigi Battle
Straits Protocol
Sultan Ahmet 2
Sultan Bayezid
Sultan Mehmet 3
Sultan Murat 3
Sultan Murat 4
Sultan Mustafa
Sultan Nayezid
Sultan Osman
Sultan Osman 2
Sultan Selim
Sultan Selim 1
Sultan Selim 2
Sultan Suleyman 2
The Treaty Of Tilsit
The War Of Tripoli
Treaty Of Bucharest
Treaty Of Edirne
Treaty Of Paris
Varna Battle
World War