Ottoman Crete : Ottoman Empire Ottoman History Ottoman Sultans Austria Turkey

The War Of Tripoli

Crete Question

Crete, a very strategic point in the Mediterranean, came under Ottoman suzerainty in 1669. Greece after its independence at Edirne Treaty of 1829 incited Cretan Greeks in hope of reviving Byzantium. The revolt of 1858 was stopped by promising reforms and the revolt of 1866 was ended with Crete’s autonomy agreed at the Conference of Paris of 1869. The revolt of Crete in 1890 was supported by Greece and Crete announced its unity with Greece. The Ottomans declared war with Greece on April,18, 1897. The Ottoman army under the command of Ethem Pasha defeated the Greek Army and captured Yenisehir and Turnova. The Greek army was removed from Thessaly at the Domeke Ground Battle. Greece was constrained to request a treaty in 1897. As to the treaty; Greece agreed to pay war indemnity. The Ottoman forces accepted to leave from Thessaly. Crete would be in the Ottoman governance, but a Christian governor appointed by the sultan had to be also approved by Greece, therefore gaining its autonomy again. While the Second Constitution was declared in the Ottoman State, Greece occupied Crete once again and announced it as the part of Greece in 1908. The Ottomans accepted with the Treaty of Athens after the Balkan Wars.

Bosnia and Herzegovina’s joining to Austria

As to the Treaty of Berlin, Bosnia and Herzegovina was left to the administration of Austria.

Austria profited from the turmoil during the Second Constitution, annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. The Ottomans State protested by stopping import from Austria. After the negotiations in 1909 the Ottomans accepted Bosnia and Herzegovina as the part of Austria. Yenipazar was ceded to the Ottomans and Austria agreed to pay 2.500.000 ottoman gold as the war indemnity.

The Second Constitution and 31 March Event

The First Constitution announced by Abdulhamit II was abolished on February 14,1878 under the guise of the Ottoman-Russia war. The movement of Abdulhamit II was not met well by the Young Ottomans (Jon Turks) and the disorder in Treasury, rebellions in Crete and Macedonia encouraged them to act against the despotic administration of Abdulhamit II via the new organisation namely “Ittihak ve Terakki” (Union and Progress). The officers of the organisation, Enver Bey, Niyazi Bey, Eyup Sabri Bey, Selahattin Bey and Hasan Tosun Bey, created the “Battalion of Liberty” and incited the people revolt against the Sultan. The Ottoman forces was not successful to resist and Abdulhamit II constrained to announce the Second Constitution on July 23, 1908.

The times of the Second Constitution was rather nationalist as “being a Turk” than the Ottomanism. The Ottoman Parliament “Meclis-I Mebusan” was opened by the elections. Many changes were made in constitution, such as the power of the parliament was strengthened , the authority of the sultan was decreased, rights and the liberty were extended with the new system.

The political crisis in the Balkans and the incompatibility of the parties at the parliamentary caused rebellions. The rebels and the parties against the constitution provocated the people and the army by ISTISMAR EDEREK the people’s religious beliefs. Some newspapers also criticised the government and the Constitution harshly. The shooting of a journalist and a MILLETVEKILI SIDDETLENDIRDI. Created by the rebels “ Avci Taburlari (Hunting Units)” at Istanbul marched through the Parliament House and insisted the resign of the grand-vizier and the president of the parliament on April 13, 1909. Rebels killed some supporters of “Union and Progress”.

Hareket Ordusu (The Movement Army) was positioned by the Government in order to stop the rebellion. The army under the command of Mahmut Sevket Pasha and Mustafa Kemal came from Thessaloniki BASTIRDI the rebellion in Istanbul. After the event of March 31, Abdukhamit II was dethroned on April 27, 1909.

MEHMET V RESAT (1909 -1918)

Mehmet V Resat, the son of Abdulmecit, was 65 years old when he ascended the throne with the support of the “Union and Progress” organisation in 1909. He was not talented enough in administration properly as he was imprisoned and controlled by his elder brother Abdulhamit II , therefore, the governance were in the hands of the “Union and Progress” headed by Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha and Cemal Pasha.

Mehmet V Resat died on July 3, 1918 after 9-year reign. He was buried at Mausoleum of Sultan Resat in Eyup-Istanbul. He ordered the mausoleum to be built while he was alive.

The War of Tripoli

Italy, with its policy of colonism following France and Britain, focused on occupying the Ottomans last soil in the North Africa, Tripoli (Libya), which was also a very close point to Italy and a passage to the core of Africa. The request of Italy was approved by Britain France and Russia as it might fasten the COKUS of the Ottoman State. Italy sent a NOTA to the Ottomans on September 28,1911 in order to TESLIM ETMEK Tripoli. The Ottomans rejected the Nota. Officers namely Enver Bey, Fethi Bey and Mustafa Kemal ORGUTLEMEK the people of Tripoli for a rebellion and prevented Italian movement through the inner provinces. Mustafa Kemal in Tobruk and Derne; Enver Bey in Benghazi had success. Italian naval forces then bombed Canakkale shores in order to put pressure on the Ottomans and captured Dodecanese islands. As Balkan War started, the Ottomans accepted an agreement with Italy.

According to the “Treaty of Ouchy (Usi)” of October 18,1912;

Tripoli relinquished to Italy.

Dodecanese islands were left temporarily to Italy until the end of Balkan Wars.

The islands were held by Italy until 1947 and given to Greece after Italy’s defeat at World War II.

See Also...
Abdulhamit 2
Abdulmecid I
Ahmet I
Ankara Battle
Balkan War
British Settlement In Egypt
Bulgaria Kingdom
Caldiran War
Conquest Of Edirne
Conquest Of Istanbul
Egypt Rebellion
Ertugrul Gazi
Fatih Sultan Mehmet
Foundation Of The Kingdom Of Bulgaria
Kabakci Mustafa Event
Kanuni Sultan Suleyman
Kingdom Of Bulgaria
Kosova Battle
Kosovo Battle I
London Convention
Mahmut 2
Mehmet 6 Vahdettin
Mehmet Sultan
Mehmet V Resat
Mercidabik War
Murat 1
Murat 2
Murat Sultan
Murat V
Mustafa I
Mustafa Iv
Nigbolu Battle
Orhan Bey
Osman Bey
Ottoman Austria
Ottoman Crete
Ottoman Crimean War
Ottoman Egypt Rebellion
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire Decline
Ottoman Empire History
Ottoman Empire Military
Ottoman Empire Russia War
Ottoman Empire Sultan
Ottoman Empire Timeline
Ottoman Empire Timeline Murat 1
Ottoman Empire Wars
Ottoman Habsburg Wars
Ottoman Iran Wars
Ottoman Persia Wars
Ottoman Persian Wars
Ottoman Poland
Ottoman Russia Relations
Ottoman Russian War
Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan And Ottoman Wars
Ottoman Sultan Nayezid
Ottoman Sultan Osman
Ottoman Sultans
Ottoman Tunisia Occupation
Ottoman Venice
Ottoman Victory
Ottoman War
Ottoman Wars
Ottomans And Osman Bey
Ottomans Mehmet
Ridaniye War
Second Siege Of Vienna
Seizure Of Egypt
Sirpsindigi Battle
Straits Protocol
Sultan Ahmet 2
Sultan Bayezid
Sultan Mehmet 3
Sultan Murat 3
Sultan Murat 4
Sultan Mustafa
Sultan Nayezid
Sultan Osman
Sultan Osman 2
Sultan Selim
Sultan Selim 1
Sultan Selim 2
Sultan Suleyman 2
The Treaty Of Tilsit
The War Of Tripoli
Treaty Of Bucharest
Treaty Of Edirne
Treaty Of Paris
Varna Battle
World War