SULEYMAN II (1687-1691)
Fearing from his brother’s re-throne Suleyman II had to deal with the rebellion of the Janissaries during the first year of his reign. The corrupted Janissaries rebelled for the bahsheesh and the grand-vizier Siyavus Pasha was killed. After this inevitable movement, the puclic reacted the Janissaries and the rebellion was controlled with the execution of the rebels.
The attacks of Austria were continuing with the falls of the Ottomans’ Kanije, Nis and Belgrade. As the vizier Bekir Mustafa Pasha was not talented and successful enough to control, Koprulu Fazil Mustafa Pasha was assigned as the grand-vizier. The fortresses of Nis,Vidin, Semendire and the fortress of Belgrade were taken back from Austria during Fazil Mustafa Pasha’s governance.
Avlonia, invaded by the forces of Venice was retaken in 1691 and the Russian forces marching through Crimea was stopped by Khan Selim Giray at Ur.
With the death of Suleyman II in 1691, Ahmet II held the throne as Suleyman II had no son.
AHMET II ( 1691-1695)
When Ahmet II ascended the throne in 1691, the wars between the Ottomans and Ausria-Venice-Poland were continuing dreadfully. The Austrian army met with the Ottoman army commanded by the grand-vizier Fazil Mustapha Pasha at Salankamen. The army was routed with the martyr of the grand vizier on the battle-ground in 1691. After the defeat in Salankamen, Austria captured Hungarian lands controlled by the Ottomans, except Temesvar.
In 1692, Hania fortress of Crete was besieged by the Venetian forces, but the capture was not afforded. In 1694, supported by the Pope, the navy of Venice captured Kastron island.
The fortress of Varat was captured by Poland in 1692 during the reign of Ahmet II.
The Ottoman army joined with the forces of Crimea under the command of Khan Selim Giray besieged the city of Petervaradin in 1694. The three months of siege was stopped due to winter.
Ahmet II died in 1695 in Edirne. He was buried in the mausoleum of Suleyman I (the lawgiver) in Istanbul.
MUSTAFA II (1695-1703)
With the faith of recapturing the Ottoman lands taken by his courageous and talented ancestors, Mustafa II attacked Kastron island and the Venetian army was defeated around the “sheep island” in 1695. The Ottomans were also successful in Mora peninsula against the Venetian army after the Kastron victory. The Ottomans campaigned to Austria three times but were routed by the Austrians during the last campaign in 1697. With the defeat of the Ottomans the members of the Holy League attacked to the lands of the Ottomans. Mora and Dalmatian shores were attacked by the Venetians. Bogdan was captured by Poland. The fortress of Azov was captured by the Russians under the command of the Czar Petro I, which might be Russia’s door to the Black Sea.
The Ottomans lost much of its force and became impoverished with the wars around its borders and requested a treaty with the mediation of English and Flemish consulates in Karlowitz (Karlofca) close to the fortress of Petervaradin.
According to the Treaty of Karlowitz (Karlofca) of 1699:
Dalmatians and Mora relinquished to Venice.
Podolia and Ukraine were ceded to Poland
Austria received Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia
The 25 year treaty was under the guarantee of Austria.
The treaty of Karlowitz was the first treaty that the Ottomans lost its lands and was considered as the beginning of the decline period.
Ottomans signed the Treaty of Istanbul with Russia in 1700. Russians recovered the fortress of Azov and positioned a consulate in Istanbul according to the treaty.
Mustafa II moved to Edirne after the tragic failure. Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi advantaged the lack of authority by settling his relatives into higher positions, corrupting the administration.
Consequently Mustafa II was dethroned by the rebellion called “Edirne Va’kasi (1703)” conducted by the educational and military class in Istanbul and Ahmet II held the throne.
Mustafa II died in 1704 and was buried in the mausoleum of Turhan Sultan at the courtyard of Yenicami/ Istanbul next to his father Mehmet IV.
Ahmet III enthroned with the support of Janissaries in 1703 after the rebellion “Edirne Va’kasi”. Ottomans lost their prestige and power with the treaties of Karlowitz and Istanbul, encouraging European countries to attack the Ottomans during the reign of Ahmet III
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